Authors & Affiliations
Peregudova O.O., Tsikunov A.G., Seliverstov I.N., Mukhamadeev R.I.
A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power, Obninsk, Russia
In this paper consideration is given to the preliminary estimation of the amount of actinides released to the environment by a high-power BN-type reactor. As a result, the data were obtained on the radiation effect of actinide discharge on the population under conditions of long-term normal operation of the NPP with BN reactor in whose core there are fuel elements with failed cladding. With the aim to estimate a possible contribution of actinides to the radiation situation related to BN reactor operation, the population exposure doses were calculated in case of aerosol and inert gas discharges into the atmosphere under the conditions of Beloyarsk NPP normal operation, with various categories of atmospheric stability. The paper presents the results of the consequences of radioactive discharges into the environment and the analysis of population dose burden calculation results obtained with the use of the code “Vybros”, including food chain doses “FCD”. As a result, the contribution of actinides to the total annual dose received by the population because of actinides, fission product aerosols and internal radioactive gases (with consideration of food chains) was equal to ~1 %. The contribution of actinides to the indicated dose received by the population is primarily determined by the peroral route of food product ingestion (~97 %). In the future it will be necessary to consider the fact that when the contents of minor actinides (Am, Cm) in the reactor fuel may increase an order of magnitude (for example, in the course of minor actinides transmutation arranged in the BN reactor), the contribution of actinides to the dose received by the population can run to 10 %. The contribution of actinides to the inhalation component of the dose will be defining (~90 %). This paper is topical due to the fact that it presents preliminary estimates of actinides radiation effects on the population under conditions of normal NPP operation with high-power BN reactor. These data are essential for designing new BN reactor systems in which the fuel with high concentration of transuranium elements (Pu, Np, Am, Cm) will be used.
Radiation effect, radioisotope, actinides, inert radioactive gas, failed fuel element, radiation burden, external radiation, inhalation
1. Baranaev Yu.D., Mukhamadeev R.I. Usovershenstvovannyj variant programmy rascheta posledstvij radioaktivnykh vybrosov na mestnosti (VYBROS-2.1a) v chasti ucheta vliyaniya meropriyatij po zashhite naseleniya na dozovye funkcionaly. [The Upgraded Version of the Code to Calculate the Consequences of Radioactive Discharges to the Environment (VYBROS-2.1a) with regard to the Effect of Population Protection Measures on Dose Functionals]. Otchet FEI 9410 - Report IPPE 9410. Obninsk, 1997.
2. Baranaev Yu.D., Mukhamadeev R.I. Attestaciya programmnykh sredstv, primenyaemykh dlya obosnovaniya bezopasnosti RU EGP-6 Bilibinskoj AES. Programmnyj kompleks Vybros-3.1 [Attestation (Qualification) of the Software Used to Justify Safety of the Bilibino NPP Reactor EGP-6. The Vybros-3.1 Computer Code]. Otchet FEI 12715 - Report IPPE 12715. Obninsk, 2011.
3. Gusev N.G., Belyaev V.A. Radioaktivnye vybrosy v biosfere [Radioactive Releases into the Biosphere]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1986, 224 p.
4. Metodika razrabotki normativov dopustimyh vybrosov radioaktivnykh veshhestv v okruzhayushhuyu sredu (DV-2010), proekt, tom 2 (tehnicheskie prilozheniya, rekomendacii dlya raschetov) [The Procedure for Developing Standards of Permissible Radioactive Substance Discharges into the Environment (DV-2010), Draft Version, Vol. 2 (Technical Applications, Recommendations for Calculations)], 2010.
5. Normativno-tehnicheskaya dokumentaciya stran SEV. Tom 1. Bezopasnost' v atomnoj energetike. Chast' 1. Obshhie polozheniya bezopasnosti. S prilozheniyami [Regulatory Technical Documentation of the Comecon Countries. V.1. Safety in Nuclear Power. Part 1. General Safety Provisions, with Supplements]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1984.
6. Normy radiacionnoj bezopasnosti (NRB-99/2009) [Radiation Safety Standards (NRB-99/2009)]. SanPiN 188.8.131.523-09 no.47 as of 07.07.2009.
7. Radiacionnaya obstanovka po territorii Rossii i sopredel'nykh gosudarstv v 2005 g. Ezhegodnik. Rosgidromet, UMZ, NPO «Tajfun» [Radiation Situation on the Territory of Russia and Neighboring States in 2005. Yearbook. Rosghydromet, UMZ, NPO “Tajfun”]. Moscow, Roshydromet Meteorological Agency, 2006.
8. Sanitarnye pravila proektirovaniya i ekspluatacii atomnykh stancij (SP AS-03) [Sanitary Regulations for Designing and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants (SP AS-03)]. SanPin 184.108.40.206-03. Ministry of Health of Russia. Moscow, 2003.
9. Poplavsky V.M. Spravochnik po svojstvam materialov dlya perspektivnykh reaktornykh tekhnologij. Tom 1. Svojstva zhidkometallicheskikh teplonositelej. Tom 2. Svojstva gazovykh sred [Handbook on Material Properties for Advanced Reactor Technologies.V.1. Liquid Metal Coolant Properties. V. 2. Gas Media Properties]. Moscow, IzdAT Publ., 2011, 400 p.