Authors & Affiliations
Dekusar V.M., Zrodnikov A.V., Eliseev V.A., Moseev A.L.
A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia
Dekusar V.M. – Head of Laboratory, Cand. Sci. (Techn.), A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering.
Zrodnikov A.V. – Scientific advisor, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering.
Eliseev V.A. – Head of Laboratory, Cand. Sci. (Techn.), A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering.
Moseev A.L. – Senior Researcher, A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. Contacts: 1, pl. Bondarenko, Obninsk, Kaluga region, Russia, 249033. Tel.: +7(484) 399-87-80; e-mail:
Solving the postponed problems of spent nuclear fuel from thermal reactors, that is the main negative component of modern nuclear power in Russia, can be practically put into effect by the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle using fast reactors. Based on the considered nuclear energy systems, taking into account their structural organization and development scenarios, the work presents quantitative estimates and analysis of americium accumulation in the Russian nuclear power industry in the near future and describes the approaches to its utilization. Two alternative scenarios for the development of nuclear energy are considered. The numerical results of the comparison, analysis of the americium accumulation with a perspective up to 2050 are presented. The rate of formation of the Am-241 isotope in the separated plutonium and stored spent fuel of various types of nuclear reactors received a proper attention. Estimates show that the suppressive contribution to the accumulation of americium is due to the Pu-241 decay, as a result of which the accumulated americium is largely consists of isotope Am-241. Research results showed that without taking special measures to utilize americium in fast reactors, accumulation of americium in spent nuclear fuel of thermal reactors will reach a significant amount by the middle of this century, while the growth rate of its reserves will increase significantly. In addition, a significant amount of americium is likely to be contained in the spent nuclear fuel of foreign reactors of Russian design, which may be imported into Russia.
accumulation of americium, americium transmutation, minor actinides, spent nuclear fuel, long-term plutonium storage, nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, fast reactor, thermal reactor, radiotoxicity, simulation
1. Zayavlenie Rossii v MAGATE v sootvetstvii s “Rukovodstvom po obrashcheniyu s plutonium” [State-ment by Russia to the IAEA in accordance with the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium]. INFCIRC 549/Add.9/19, IAEA. Vienna, 2017. Available at: https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/ publications/documents/infcircs/1998/infcirc549a9-19.pdf (accessed 21.02.2019).
2. Alekseyev P.N, Alekseyev S.V., Andrianova E.A. et al. Dvukhkomponentnaya yadernaya energeticheskaya sistema s teplovymi i bystrymi reaktorami v zamknutom yadernom toplivnom tsikle [Two-component nuclear power system with thermal and fast reactors in a closed nuclear fuel cycle]. Moscow, Tekhnosfera Publ., 2016.
3. Kalashnikov A., Moseev A., Dekusar V., Korobeynikov V., Moseev P. Evolution of the CYCLE Code for the System Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Nuclear Energy and Technology, 2016, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 114—118.
4. NP-030-12. Federal’nyye normy i pravila v oblasti ispol’zovaniya atomnoy energii “Osnovnyye pravila ucheta i kontrolya yadernykh materialov” [Basic rules for accounting and control of nuclear materials]. Moscow, Federal Enviromental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service of Russian Publ., 2012.
5. Matveyev V.I., Khomyakov Yu.S. Tekhnicheskaya fizika bystrykh reaktorov s natriyevym teplonositelem [Technical physics of fast sodium cooled reactors]. Moscow, MEI Publ., 2012.
6. Shropshire D.E., Williams K.A., Boore W.B. et al. Advanced Fuel Cost Basis. Available at: http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/3915965.pdf (accessed 13.09.2018).
7. Grouiller J.P., Buiron L., Mignot G., Palhier R. Transmutation in ASTRID. Proc. Int. Conf. on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development FR13. Paris, 2013.