Authors & Affiliations
Belousov A.V.1, Zheltonozhskaya M.V.1,2, Krusanov G.A.2, Lykova E.N.1,2, Chernyaev A.P.1,2
1 Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Belousov A.V. – Associate Professor, Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Zheltonozhskaya M.V. – Senior Researcher, Leading Engineer, Cand. Sci. (Tech.), Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Krusanov G.A. – Programmer, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Lykova E.N. – Senior Lecturer, Leading Engineer, Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Contacts: 1/2, Leninskie Gory st., Moscow, Russia, 119991. Tel.: +7 (917) 519-52-50; e-mail:
Chernyaev A.P. – Head of the Department, Head of the Laboratory, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Monte Carlo calculations with geant4 code provides a convenient tool for studying the parameters of neutron sources. The purpose of this work was simulation of the 30 to 140 MeV electron beam transport through a tungsten target with the geant4 program code. In addition, the neutrons yield produced in the target from the electron beam at the IREN JINR facility was studied. The geant4 program code correctly describes the neutron photoproduction process during the primary electron beam interactions with a tungsten target. To verify the cross sections in geant4 at high photon energies, the cross sections in the TALYS program code were calculated. Used cross sections are in good agreement with previous experimental data. The obtained photoneutron yield dependences from the electron energy for a target simulating an IREN facility are from 7.0·10–3 at 30 MeV to 4.2·10–2 neutrons per electron at 200 MeV.
simulation, program code geant4, photonuclear reactions, neutron sources, medical physics, electron accelerators
1. Danon Y., Block R.C., Slovacek R.E. Design and construction of a thermal neutron target for the RPI linac. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 1995, vol. 352, no. 3, pp. 596–603.
2. Picton D.J., Ross D.K., Taylor A.D. Optimisation studies for a moderator on a pulsed neutron source. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 1982, no. 15, pp. 2369–2400.
3. Favalli A., Pedersen B. Design and characterisation of a pulsed neutron interrogation facility. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 2007, vol. 126, no. 1–4, pp. 74–77.
4. Arruda-Neto J.D.T., Filadelfo M. Feasibility study for the implementation of an intense linac-based neutron source facility in Sao Paulo. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 1999, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 491–496.
5. Auditore L., et al. Study of a 5 MeV electron linac based neutron source. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 2005, vol. 229, no. 2, pp. 137–143.
6. Loi G., et al. Neutron production from a mobile linear accelerator operating in electron mode for intraoperative radiation therapy. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 2006, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 695–702.
7. Eshwarappa K.M. et al. Comparison of photoneutron yield from beryllium irradiated with bremsstrah-lung radiation of different peak energy. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2007, vol. 34, pp. 896–901.
8. Prokhorets I.M. et al. Сomputation studying of the neutron yield from the neutron-production target irradiated with electrons. Problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Nuclear Physics Investigations, 2009, vol. 52, pp. 101–104.
9. Tatari M., Ranjbar A.H. Design of a photoneutron source based on 10 MeV electrons of radiotherapy linac. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 2014, vol. 63, pp. 69–74.
10. Bedogni R. et al. Experimental and numerical characterization of the neutron field produced in the n@BTFFrascati photo-neutron source. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 2011, vol. 659, pp. 373–377.
11. Patil B.J. et al. Design of 6 MeV linear accelerator based pulsed thermal neutron source: FLUKA simulation and experiment. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2012, vol. 70, pp. 149–155.
12. Mbarek R., Brahim A., Jallouli H., Trabelsi A. Design of a photoneutron source based on a 10 MeV Circe iii electron linac. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, 2013, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 498–503.
13. Wasilewski A., Wronka S. Monte-Carlo simulations of a neutron source generated with electron linear accelerator. Nukleonika, 2006, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 169–173.
14. Wilenzick R.M. et al. Measurement of fast neutron produced by high energy X-ay beams of medical electron accelerators. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 1973, vol. 18, pp. 396–408.
15. Axton E.J., Bardell A.G. Neutron production from electronacce1erators used for medical purpose. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 1972, vol. 17, pp. 293–298.
16. d'Errico F. et al. In vivo neutron dosimetry during high-energy bremsstrahlung radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics, 1998, vol. 41, pp. 1185–1192.
17. Tosi G., Torresin, A., Agosteo S., Foglio P. A., Sangiust V., Zeni L., Silari M. Neutron measurements around medical electron accelerators by active and passive detection techniques. Medical Physics, 1991, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 54–60.
18. Agostinelli S., et al. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, 2003, vol. 506, no. 3, pp. 250–303.
19. Chadwick M.B. et al. ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology. Nuclear Data Sheets, 2006, vol. 107, no. 12, pp. 2931–3060.
20. IREN components. Available at: http://flnph.jinr.ru/ru/facilities/iren/iren-components (дата обращения 26.03.2018).
21. Koning A.J., Hilaire S., Duijvestijn M.C. TALYS: Comprehensive Nuclear Reaction Modelling. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2005, vol. 769, pp. 1154. doi: 10.1063/1.1945212.
22. Quintieri L. et al. Сomparison of the validation of photo-nuclear predictions with geant4, FLUKA and MCNP for selected test cases in high energy range. Proc. 13th Meeting of the task-force on Shielding aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities SATIF-13. Dresden, Germany, 2016.
23. Swanson W.P. Improved Calculation of Photoneutron Yields Released by Incident Electrons. Health Physics, 1979, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 347–358.
24. Slac-pub-6628, Giant dipole resonance neutron yields produced by electrons as a function of target material and thikness. Stanford, Stanford University, 1996.
25. Khai N.T. et al. Neutron yield from (γ, n) and (γ, 2n) reactions following 100 MeV bremsstrahlung in a tungsten target. Communications in Physics, 2009, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 53–58.