Authors & Affiliations
A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia
In the development of nuclear power in the world, there are three stages separated by major accidents at nuclear power plants: "Three Mile Island" (USA, 1979), the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (USSR – Ukraine, 1986) and the "Kama-1" nuclear power plant (Japan, 2011). At the first and second stages, until 1990, there was a rapid development of nuclear power, when 20-30 units were introduced per year and their number increased to 391 with a total capacity of 321 GW, followed by a sharp decline, the withdrawal of many units from operation, which reached the deadline of 40 years. So for after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster from 2011 to 2016, taking into account the withdrawn (17 blocks), only 7 blocks and 13 GW of energy were added. As a result, as of 01.12.2016, the total installed capacity of 450 units was 392 GW. At the same time, prices for uranium and gas have decreased, and the latter has led to an increase in the competitiveness of gas thermal power plants (CCGT with an efficiency of up to 55-65 %). The share of world electricity production at nuclear power plants fell from 17.6 % (1995) to 10.7 % (2015). To improve the nuclear power plant's economy, it was necessary to significantly increase the level of safety while simplifying and reducing the cost of the actual projects, first of all, the reactor compartment (nuclear island-Yao), the cost of power unit equipment, construction and installation on site, and reducing operating costs. As a result, "Generation -3+" reactors were developed and are already being built: Westinghouse (USA) AR-1000, ARR-1400 (Korea), boiling-GeneralElectric (USA) ESBWR- 1650, Areva (France) EPR (1600 mw), in Russia Rosatom – NPP-2006 (1200 MW) and VVER-TOI (1250 MW). The paper presents the results of comparing the economic efficiency of these projects. In January 2000, at the initiative of the US Department of energy, the "generation IV international forum" (MFP-4) program was launched, the goal of the program was to identify the main areas of R & d for the development of promising 4th-generation nuclear power plants. As a result of the evaluation carried out by a group of leading experts in nuclear energy, six basic concepts of nuclear power plants were selected. In this paper, only three of them are considered: these are reactors cooled with sodium (SFR-BN), lead (LFR-BR), and supercritical pressure water (SCWR-VVER-SKD). SCWR reactors have been most developed abroad. In a number of countries, conceptual projects have been implemented showing the economic efficiency of these reactors by 20-40 % compared to the "P. 3+" reactors. In Russia, in order not to depend on fluctuations in uranium prices, to reduce problems with the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the implementation of a closed fuel cycle in the nuclear power industry, BN and BR reactors are being actively developed.
development of nuclear power plants in Russia and the world, proven reserves and cost of uranium, water-cooled reactors of generations 3+ and 4, fast reactors on sodium and lead, two-component nuclear power plants, spectral regulation, reactors with supercritical pressure water, closed fuel cycle, strategies for the development of nuclear energy, project deadlines.
1. Nigmatulin B.I. Atomnaya energetika v Rossii i mire [Nuclear power in Russia and the world]. Moscow, IBRAE Publ., 2017.
2. Nuclear power reactors in the world. Vienna, Austria, IAEA Publ., 2016.
3. World Bank database. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/ (accessed 21.10.2019).
4. А Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. Доступно на: http://www.gen-4org/PDFs/GenIVRoadmap.pdf (дата обращения 21.10.2019).
5. Kirillov P.L., Pioro I. Pokolenie IV yadernykh reaktorov kak osnova dlya mirovogo proizvodstva elektrichestva v budushchem [Generation IV nuclear reactors as the basis for global electricity production in the future]. Atomnaya tekhnika za rubezhom – Nuclear Technology Abroad, 2014, no. 2, pp. 3-12.
6. IAEA. Uranium 2016. Resources Production and Demand («Red Book №7301»). Available at: https://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2016/7301-uranium-2016.pdf (accessed 21.10.2019).
7. IAEA, Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research, 2015. Available at: https://wwwpub. iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TE-1771_web.pdf (accessed 21.10.2019).
8. Gagarinskiy A.Yu. Komissiya "Goluboy lenty" o yadernom budushchem Ameriki [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future]. Atomnaya energiya – Atomic Energy, 2012, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 249-251.
9. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2016. Available at: https://www.eia.gov/ (accessed 21.10.2019).
10. Nigmatulin B.I. O sostoyanii i vozmozhnom razvitii biznesa na blizhajshie 10-15 let grazhdanskoj chasti atomnoj otrasli Rossii [About the state and possible business development for the next 10-15 years of the civilian part of the nuclear industry in Russia]. Information in Rosatom no. 1 dated 03/21/2017.
11. Demeshko M.P., Paramonov D.V., Dub A.V., Veselov D.O., Makhin V.M. O perspektivakh tekhnologii VVER [On the prospects of WWER technology]. Trudy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konf. "Teplofizicheskie eksperimental'nye i raschetno – teoreticheskie issledovaniya v obosnovanie kharakteristik i bezopasnosti yadernykh reaktorov na bystrykh neytronakh. Teplofizika-2016" [Proc. Sci. and Tech. Conf. “Thermophysical experimental and theoretical design calculations to substantiate the characteristics and safety of fast neutron reactors. Thermophysics-2016"]. Obninsk, 2016.
12. Preobrazhenskaya L.B., Sokolova I.D. Novye AES: Uspekhi i problemy. Chast' 2. Problemy reaktorov pokoleniya 3 i 3+ [New NPP: Successes and problems. Part 2. Problems of reactors of generation 3 and 3+]. Atomnaya tekhnika za rubezhom – Nuclear Technology Abroad, 2011, no. 6, pp. 3-14.
13. Itogi deyatel'nosti GK "Rosatom" za 2017 g [The results of the activities of Rosatom SC for 2017]. Strana Rosatom – Country Rosatom, 2017, no. 32, pp. 1-48.
14. Buongiorno J., MasDonald P.E. Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR). Progress Report for the FY-03 Generation-IV R&D Activities for the Development of the SCWR in the U.S. INEEL\EXT-03-01210, 2003, p. 38.
15. Yetisir M., Gaudet M., Rhodes D. Development and Integration of Canadian SCWR Concept with Counter-Flow Fuel Assembly. Proc. 6th Int. Symposium ISSCWR-6. Shenzhen, China, 2013, Paper 13059.
16. Technology Roadmap Update for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency for the Generation IV International Forum, 2014.
17. Lenberg T., Starflinger J. High Performance Light Water Reactor : Design and Analyses. KIT Scientific Publishing, 2012, p. 242.
18. Cheng Xu et al. A mixed core for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors. Nuclear engineering and technology, 2007, vol. 40, no. 2, special issue on the 3rd international symposium on SCWR, p. 117-126.
19. Glebov A.P., Klushin A.V. Reaktor s bystro-rezonansnym spektrom neytronov, okhlazhdaemyy vodoy sverkhkriticheskogo davleniya pri dvukhkhodovoy skheme dvizheniya teplonositelya [A reactor with a fast-resonance spectrum of neutrons, cooled by supercritical water at a two-way flow pattern of the coolant]. Atomnaya energiya – Atomic Energy, 2006, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 349-355.
20. Ryzhov S.B., Mokhov, V.A., Nikitenko M.P. et al. Kontseptsiya odnokonturnoy RU VVER-SKD s korpusnym reaktorom, okhlazhdaemym vodoy sverkhkriticheskogo davleniya [The concept of a singleloop VVER-SKD RP with a supercritical water-cooled tank reactor]. Trudy 5 Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma ISSCWR-5 [Proc. 5th Int. Symposium ISSCWR-5]. Vancouver, Canada, 2011.
21. Glebov A.P., Klushin A.V., Baranaev Yu.D., Kirillov P.L. Presearch of Features of U-Pu-Th Fuel Cycle and its Use for Burning up of Minor Actinides in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor with Fast Neutron Spectrum. Proc. conf. ICONE21. Chengdu, China, 2013, Paper 16888.
22. Baranaev Yu.D., Glebov A.P., Klushin A.V. Aktivnaya zona s bystro-rezonansnym spektrom neytronov so sverkhkriticheskim davleniem vody [An active zone with a fast-resonance neutron spectrum with supercritical water pressure]. Patent RF, no. 2485612, 2013.
23. Markov S.I., Balikoev A.G., Dub V.S. et al. Razrabotka vysokoprochnoy teplostoykoy stali dlya VVER so sverkhkriticheskimi parametrami teplonositelya [Development of high-strength heat-resistant steel for VVER with supercritical coolant parameters]. Trudy 10 mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii "Obespechenie bezopasnosti AES s VVER" [Proc. 10th Int. Sci. and Techn. Conf. "Ensuring the safety of NPPs with VVER"]. Podolsk, 2017.
24. Novaya programma Rosatoma [New Rosatom program]. Strana Rosatom – Country Rosatom, 2012.
25. Ponomarev-Stepnoy N.N. et al. Dvukhkomponentnaya yadernaya energeticheskaya sistema s teplovymi i bystrymi reaktorami v zamknutom yadernom toplivnom tsikle [A two-component nuclear power system with thermal and fast reactors in a closed nuclear fuel cycle]. Moscow, Technosphere Publ., 2016.
26. Gonchar N.I., Pankratov D.V. Opredelenie kharakteristik vykhoda poloniya iz ZhMT v gazovuyu fazu po eksperimental'nym dannym GNTs RF-FEI [Determination of the characteristics of the output of polonium from iron ore to the gas phase using experimental data from the SSC RF-FEI]. Trudy nauchnotekhnicheskoy konferentsii "Teplofizika-2013" [Proc. Sci. and Techn. Conf. "Thermophysics-2013"]. Obninsk, 2013.
27. Lopatkin A.V., Orlov V.V. et al. Toplivnyy tsikl reaktorov BREST [BREST reactor fuel cycle]. Atomnaya energiya – Atomic Energy, 2000, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 308-314.
28. Bakanov M.V., Troyanov V.M., Sheremet'eva T.O. Toplivoobespechenie dvukhkomponentnoy yadernoy energetiki Rossii [Fuel supply of two-component nuclear energy of Russia]. Trudy nauchnotekhnicheskoy konferentsii "Teplofizika-2013" [Proc. Sci. and Techn. Conf. "Thermophysics-2013"]. Obninsk, 2013.
29. Proektirovanie bystrogo reaktora so svintsovym teplonositelem (LFR): bezopasnost', neytronnaya fizika, teplogidravlika, mekhanika konstruktsiy, toplivo, aktivnaya zona i konstruktsiya ustanovki [Design of a fast lead coolant reactor (LFR): safety, neutron physics, thermal hydraulics, structural mechanics, fuel, core, and installation design]. Novosti Atomnoy Nauki i Tekhniki – News of Atomic Science and Technology, 2011, no. 225-228.
30. Poplavskiy V.M. et al. Aktivnaya zona i toplivnyy tsikl dlya perspektivnogo natrievogo reaktora [Core and fuel cycle for a promising sodium reactor]. Atomnaya energiya – Atomic Energy, 2010, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 206-211.
31. Glebov A.P., Baranaev Yu.D., Klushin A.V. Otsenka stoimosti perspektivnykh yadernykh energoblokov na predproektnoy stadii razrabotki [Estimation of the cost of prospective nuclear power units at the predesign stage of development]. Trudy 10 mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii "Obespechenie bezopasnosti AES s VVER" [Proc. 10th Int. Sci. and Techn. Conf. "Ensuring the safety of NPPs with VVER"]. Podolsk, 2017.
32. Sovremennye proekty OKB "Gidropress" [Modern projects of OKB Gidropress]. VANT. Obespechenie bezopasnosti AES – PAST. Ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants, 2015, no. 35.
33. Adamov E.O. Rol' reaktorov na bystryh nejtronah v strategii razvitiya YAE Rossii [The role of fast neutron reactors in the development strategy of Russian nuclear power]. Trudy 11 mezhdunarodnoy nauchno- tekhnicheskoy konferentsii "Bezopasnost', effektivnost' i ekonomika atomnoy energetiki" [Proc. 11th Int. Sci. and Techn. Conf. "Safety, Efficiency and Economics of Nuclear Energy"]. Moscow, 2018.
34. Asmolov V.G. Strategiya-2018 [Strategy 2018]. Trudy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii "Obespechenie bezopasnosti AES s VVER" [Proc. Int. Sci. and Techn. Conf. "Ensuring the safety of NPPs with VVER"]. Podolsk, 2019.
UDC UDC 621.039.54