Authors & Affiliations
Belonogov M.N., Volkov I.A., Modestov D.G., Simonenko V.A., Khmelnitsky D.V.
Zababakhin All-Russia Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk, Russia
Volkov I.A. – Researcher.
Modestov D. G. – Senior Researcher.
Simonenko V.A. – Deputy Scientific Adviser, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor.
Khmelnitsky D.V. – Deputy Head of Department, Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Associate Professor.
Reduction in the amount of accumulated minor actinides (Np, Am, and Cm isotopes), as well as, the long-lived fission products, to the extent possible, is a top-priority task for the nuclear power engineering. Transmutation of this waste in a special-purpose molten-salt burner reactor has been currently proposed as a possible solution for this problem.
The objective of the present paper is to investigate basic regularities of Np, Am, and Cm transmutation in the molten salt burner reactor and to determine optimal operational conditions of the reactor. In the optimal equilibrium mode just fluorides of these elements are added into the fuel composition but the fission products are extracted from it. This mode are reached by maintaining a specified actinide concentration.
In order to provide the reactor criticality with a lower than optimum actinide concentration, it is required to add plutonium in the feed fuel instead of a certain amount of minor actinides, thus impairing the transmutation efficiency. To keep the critical state in the equilibrium mode, in situations where the actinide concentration is higher than the optimum one, it is essential to extract a portion of fuel with high content of 238Pu. It has been shown that the reactor configuration is the primary factor responsible for optimum actinide concentration value and that this value varies little with the feed fuel composition, the type of salt dissolving agent, and the fuel reprocessing mode. Optimal concentration for the molten-salt burner reactor with the core volume ranging from 2 to 30 m3 is within 17…10 mole %.
molten salt reactor, transmutation of minor actinides, equilibrium mode, evolution of nuclide composition, neutron-physical calculation
- Status and Trends in Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management. IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NW-T-1.14. Vienna, IAEA. 2018. 74 p.
- Degtyarev A.M., Kolyaskin O.E., Myasnikov A.A., Ponomarev L.I., Karmanov F.I., Seregin M.B., Sidorkin S.F. Molten-salt subcritical transplutonium actinide incinerator. Atomic Energy, 2013, vol. 114, issue 4, pp. 225–232.
- Ignatiev V., Feynberg O. Progress in Development of Li, Be, Na/F Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter Concept. Proc. of the International Congress on Advanced in Nuclear Power Plants. Nice, France, 2007, paper 7548.
- Ignatiev V., Feynberg O., Gnidoi I., et al. Molten salt actinide recycler and transforming system without and with Th-U support: Fuel cycle flexibility and key material properties. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 2014, vol. 64, pp. 408–420.
- Zatsepin O.V., Kandiev Ya.Z., Kashaeva E.A., Malyshkin G.N., Modestov D.G. Raschety metodom Monte-Karlo po programme PRIZMA neytronno-fizicheskikh kharakteristik aktivnoy zony VVER-1000. [Calculation for the WWER-1000 Core by the Monte Carlo Method Implemented in the PRIZMA Code]. Voprosy atomnoy nauki i tekhniki. Seriya: Fizika yadernykh reaktorov – Problems of Atomic Science and Technology. Series: Physics of Nuclear Reactors, 2011, no. 4, pp. 64–73.
- Modestov D.G. Programma resheniya zadach yadernoy kinetiki RISK-2014 [The RISK-2014 Code to Solve Nuclear Kinetics Problems]. Preprint RFYATS-VNIITF – Preprint RFNC-VNIITF, no. 243. Snezhinsk, 2014.
- Trkov A., Herman M., Browm D.A. ENDF-6 Formats Manual. Report BNL-90365-2009 Rev.2, 2012. 378 p. Available at: http://mcnp.lanl.gov/pdf-files/bnl-90635-2009v2.pdf (accessed 07.10.2021).
- Ponomarev L.I., Belonogov M.N., Volkov I.A., Simonenko V.A., Sheremet’eva U.F. LiF–NaF–KF Eutectic Based Fast Molten-Salt Reactor as Np, Am, Cm Transmuter. Atomic Energy, 2019, vol. 126, issue 3, pp. 139–149.
- Ignatiev V.V., Feynberg O.S., Zagnitko A.V., Merzlyakov A.V., Surenkov A.I., Panov A.V., Subbotin V.G., Afonichkin V.K., Khokhlov V.A., Kormilitsyn M.V. Molten-salt reactors: new possibilities, problems and solutions. Atomic Energy, 2012, vol. 112, issue 3, pp. 157–165.
- Ponomarev L.I., Seregin M.B., Parshin A.P., Mel’nikov S.A., Mikhalichenko A.A., Zagorets L.P., Manuilov R.N., Rzheutskii A.A. Fuel Salt for the Molten-Salt Reactor. Atomic Energy, 2013, vol. 115, issue 1, pp. 5–10.
- Lizin A.A., Tomilin S.V., Gnevashov O.E., Gazizov R.K., Osipenko A.G., Kormilitsyn M.V., Baranov A.A., Zaharova L.V., Naumov V.S., Ponomarev L.I. PuF3, AmF3, CeF3, and NdF3 Solubility in LiF–NaF–KF Melt. Atomic Energy, 2013, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 11–17.
- Ignatiev V., Surenkov A., Gnidoi I.et al., Compatibility of Selected Ni-Based Alloys in Molten Li, Na, BE/F Salts with PuF3 and Tellurium Additions. Nuclear Technology, 2008, vol. 164, pp. 130–142.
- Petrov E.R., Bibichev B.A., Domkin V.D., Kozharin V.V., Kurenkov N.V., Mukhin V.S., Panteleev Yu.A. Determination of the radionuclide composition and burn-up of high-burn-up WWER-1000 fuel by destructive methods. Radiochemistry, 2012, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 379–382.
- Belonogov M.N., Volkov I.A., Modestov D.G., Rykovanov G.N., Simonenko V.A., Khmelnitsky D.V. On an Optimal Minor-Actinide Transmutation Regime in a Molten-Salt Reactor. Atomic Energy, 2020, vol. 128, issue 3, pp. 143–150.
- Petrov E.R., Bibichev B.A., Domkin V.D., Kozharin V.V., Kurenkov N.V., Mukhin V.S., Panteleev Yu.A. Results of measuring the content of actinide, neodymium, and cesium isotopes and the burn-up in a sample of high-burn-up WWER-1000 fuel by destructive methods. Radiochemistry, 2013, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 517–520.
- Pyatyy natsional'nyy doklad Rossiyskoy Federatsii o vypolnenii obyazatel'stv, vytekayushchikh iz Ob"yedinennoy konventsii o bezopasnosti obrashcheniya s otrabotavshim toplivom i o bezopasnosti obrashcheniya s radioaktivnymi otkhodami [The fifth national report of the Russian Federation on the implementation of the obligations arising out of the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management]. Moscow, 2017. 161 p. Available at: https://www.gosnadzor.ru/activity/international/national%20reports/Russian_Federation_rus.pdf (accessed 04.10.2021).