Authors & Affiliations

Glebov A.P.
A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia

Glebov A.P. – Leading Researcher, Cand. Sci. (Tech.), A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. Contacts: 1, pl. Bondarenko, Obninsk, Kaluga region, Russia, 249033. Tel.: +7(484) 399-88-69; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Abstract

In the development of nuclear energy in Russia and the world can be divided into three stages, separated by large accidents at nuclear power plants, "Three Mile island" (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Soviet Ukraine, 1986), the nuclear power plant "Fokusima-1" (Japan,2011).
The share of world electricity production at NPPs fell from 17.6% (1995) to 10.7% (2015). To improve the competitiveness of nuclear power plants required a significant increase in the level of safety while simplifying and reducing the cost of projects. As a result, water-cooled reactors of "Generation -3+"were developed and are already being built. These are Westinghouse reactors (USA) AR-1000, ARR-1400 (Korea), boiling water-General Electric (USA) ESBWR-1650, Areva (France) EPR (1600 MW), Rosatom - NPP-2006 (1200 MW) and VVER-TOI (1250 MW) in Russia. The paper presents the results of comparing the economic efficiency of these projects.
In January 2000, at the initiative of the us Department of energy, the Generation IV international forum (MFP-4) program was launched. The objectives of this program was to identify the main areas of R&d for the development of promising nuclear power plants of the 4th generation. As a result of the assessment carried out by the group of 100 experts – leading specialists in nuclear energy, six basic concepts of nuclear power were selected for the development of the program MFP-4. This paper considers only three of these six concepts, which have so far received the greatest development. These are reactors cooled by sodium (SFR), lead (LFR) and supercritical pressure water (SCWR).
The paper discusses the features of the development of nuclear power, the implementation of CFC in different countries and mainly in Russia, the stages, timing of their implementation, emerging problems. The use of SCWR reactors for the near future and more distant with a fast neutron spectrum in systems with CFC is substantiated.

Keywords
development of NPP in Russia and the world, proven reserves and cost of uranium, water-cooled reactors of 3+ and 4 generations, fast reactors on sodium and lead, two-component NPP, spectral control, reactors with supercritical pressure water, closed fuel cycle

Article Text (PDF, in Russian)

References

UDC 621.039.5

Problems of Atomic Science and Technology. Series: Nuclear and Reactor Constants, 2018, issue 4, 4:21